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Combat Warplanes / Mi-28
« on: November 10, 2021, 03:45:25 PM »
In the mid-1970s, the two main helicopter design bureaus of the USSR began working on projects of promising attack helicopters in parallel. The Kamov Design Bureau worked on the future Ka-50, and the Mil Design Bureau designed the Mi-28. November 10, 1982 - the first flight of the Mi-28 attack helicopter.

The Mi-28 is a single-rotor helicopter with a tail rotor and an auxiliary wing. The two-seat cockpit of the pilot and navigator operator is armored. Unlike the Mi-24, the new helicopter does not have an amphibious cargo cabin. The Mi-28N version is equipped with 2 ? VK-2500-02 turboshaft engines (2200 hp), the maximum speed is 300 km/ h, the flight range is 450 km. Armament ? 30 mm 2A42 cannon + up to 2300 kg of combat load on 4 suspension points.

Testing, refinement and elimination of the helicopter's shortcomings took a lot of time. Only in 1996, a modification of the Mi-28N "Night Hunter" was developed, which was adopted by the Russian Aerospace Forces in 2013. The Mi-28N is also in service with the Iraqi and Algerian Air Forces.

Combat Warplanes / Siemens-Schuckert DDr.I
« on: November 09, 2021, 06:38:44 PM »
At the beginning of 1917, British Sopwith Triplane fighters appeared on the Western Front. #Germany responded to this with its Fokker Dr.I, which was flown by the famous ace pilot Manfred von Richthofen, nicknamed "The Red Baron". But other companies were also working on similar projects. In mid-1917, the development of its DDr fighter.I started Siemens-Schuckert. November 9, 1917 - the first flight of the experimental fighter Siemens-Schuckert DDr.I.

It was a single-seat triplane with pushing and pulling screws, made of wood. It was equipped with 2 ? Siemens-Halske Sh.1 engines with a capacity of 110 hp each. The armament consisted of 2 ? 7.9 mm LMG 08/15 machine guns.

Siemens-Schuckert DDr.I was one of the first aircraft of the "pull-push" scheme. Unfortunately, his first flight turned out to be his last. The fighter crashed and could not be restored. DDr projects.I and a similar DDr.II with more powerful engines were closed.

Combat Warplanes / Hawker Hurricane
« on: November 06, 2021, 10:13:11 PM »
The chief designer of Hawker Aircraft, Sir Sidney Camm, in the early 1930s, discussed with representatives of the Royal British Air Force a monoplane fighter to replace the Hawker Fury biplane. In 1934, the company received an order from the Aviation Ministry to develop such a project. The new fighter was named Hurricane. November 6, 1935 - the first flight of the Hawker Hurricane piston fighter.

It was a single-seat low-wing with a retractable landing gear. In the Mk.IIC variant, it was equipped with a Rolls-Royce Merlin XX engine (1185 hp) with a maximum speed of 550 km/h and a flight range of 970 km. Armament ? 4 ? 20 mm Hispano Mk II guns + 2 ? 110-kg or 230-kg bombs.

The reliable and easy-to-manufacture Hurricane entered service with the Royal Air Force already in 1937. 14487 fighters of all variants were produced. Hurricane actively participated in the Second World War and, in addition to the UK, were in service with more than 20 countries (Australia, Canada, France, the USSR, etc.)

Combat Warplanes / Saab 32 Lansen
« on: November 03, 2021, 06:15:53 PM »
In 1946, Saab began work on a project that was supposed to replace the Saab B 18 / S 18 bombers. 2 years later, the Swedish government clarified the requirements for a new strike aircraft ? it should be jet, as well as universal (attack aircraft, fighter, bomber). Thus began the history of the Saab 32 Lansen. November 3, 1952 - the first flight of the Saab 32 Lansen multi-purpose attack fighter.

The Lansen was a two-seat low-wing with a retractable landing gear. The Svenska Flygmotor RM6A engine with a thrust of 65.3 kN on the afterburner allowed it to reach speeds of up to 1200 km / h. The flight range is 2000 km. In the fighter version, it carried the following armament ? 4 ? 30 mm ADEN guns + up to 1500 kg of combat load (missiles) on 4 suspension points.

Lansen was produced in 3 versions - attack aircraft (A 32A), fighter (J 32B) and scout (S 32C). It became the first supersonic aircraft of the Swedish Air Force. 450 Saab 32 Lansen units of all modifications were built. These aircraft were in service with the Swedish Air Force until 1997.

Combat Warplanes / Landgraf H-2
« on: November 02, 2021, 05:48:21 PM »
Engineer Fred Landgraf, who previously worked at Douglas Aircraft, was more attracted to helicopter construction than work on airplanes. Therefore, in 1943 he founded his own company Landgraf Helicopter. The first project was the H-2 helicopter, designed to participate in the US Army competition. On November 2, 1944, the first flight of the Landgraf H-2 light helicopter.

It was a single-seat all-wood helicopter of a transverse scheme with a retractable landing gear. The H-2 did not have a blade skewing machine ? it was controlled by roll, pitch and yaw using ailerons mounted on each of the three blades of both propellers. It was equipped with a Pobjoy R engine (85 hp) with a maximum speed of 160 km/h.

During the tests, the H2 showed good flight characteristics and the Landgraf Helicopter received financial support from the military. But later the appearance of more advanced helicopters led to the withdrawal of funding and the project was closed. Traces of the only H-2 built are lost after 1949.

Combat Warplanes / Fokker S.IX
« on: November 01, 2021, 08:14:17 PM »
Having decided to replace the outdated Fokker S.III training biplanes, the Dutch Navy turned to Fokker again. In a short time, the company developed the S.IX aircraft, which later became interested in the country's Air Force. November 1, 1937 - the first flight of the Fokker S.IX training aircraft.

S.The IX was a two-seat biplane with a non-retractable landing gear. The fuselage frame was made of steel pipes, the wing was made of wood, the entire skin was canvas. The aircraft was produced in two versions - S.IX/1 with an Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major engine (165 hp) for the Air Force and S.IX/2 with a Menasco Buccaneer engine (200 hp) for the Navy. The maximum speed of S.IX/1 is 185 km/h, the flight range is 710 km.

Pilots praised the Fokker S.IX for its good flying qualities. Before the beginning of the German occupation, about 50 aircraft were released, most of which were destroyed by German aircraft. After World War II, Fokker produced 3 more S.IX aircraft, which were operated until the early 1950s.

Combat Warplanes / Saunders-Roe A.36 Lerwick
« on: October 31, 2021, 08:00:26 PM »
Flying boats-biplanes Saunders Roe A.27 London and Supermarine Stranraer entered the Royal British Air Force in 1936-37, but were already considered obsolete. The requirements for their replacement were formulated by the British Aviation Ministry in the specification R.1/36. One of the participants in the competition was Saunders-Roe with her project A.36 Lerwick, work on which began in 1937. October 31, 1938 - the first flight of the Saunders-Roe A.36 Lerwick patrol flying boat.

It was a high-altitude flying boat with 2 ? Bristol Hercules II engines (1356 hp) The crew consisted of 6-9 people. The maximum speed is 344 km/h, the flight range is 2480 km. Armament ? 7 ? 7.7 mm machine guns + up to 907 kg of bombs / depth charges.

The tests revealed a number of problems with flight characteristics. It was not possible to eliminate everything, but the aircraft was put into mass production and adopted by the Royal Air Forces of Great Britain and Canada. 14 of the 21 A.36 Lerwick built were lost in accidents.

Combat Warplanes / J-20
« on: October 31, 2021, 03:14:23 PM »
The world's first monument to a fifth-generation fighter!!

The prototype of the Chinese J-20 fighter, which took part in resource tests, was installed on the territory of the Chengdu Aerospace Corporation Flight Training Center (part of the Chinese State Aircraft Corporation - AVIC). In the background is a monument to another famous Chinese aircraft of the same company - Chengdu J-10. In general, the opening ceremony looks interesting, as if they are saying goodbye to him.

Combat Warplanes / Martin XB-51 bomber
« on: October 28, 2021, 06:38:30 PM »
At the end of World War II, the Glenn L. Martin Company began the XA-45 attack aircraft project. It quickly became clear that its design ? two turbojet and two turboprop engines - is not the best solution. So the XA-45 was transformed into the XB-51 jet bomber project. October 28, 1949 - the first flight of the Martin XB-51 bomber.

The XB-51 was a medium-sized plane with a T-shaped tail and an unusual arrangement of engines. 2 ? General Electric J47-GE-13 with a thrust of 23 kN was placed in the ventral pylons closer to the nose, and one in the tail. The maximum speed is 1036 km/ h, the flight range is 1730 km. Armament ? 8 ? 20 mm guns M24 + 8 ? missiles or up to 4720 kg bombs.

2 XB-51 prototypes were built. Tests have shown that the aircraft is inferior to the English bomber English Electric Canberra. As a result, Glenn L. Martin Company acquired a license for its production under the designation B-57 Canberra, and the XB-51 project was closed.

Combat Warplanes / Vickers Vista flying boat
« on: October 27, 2021, 05:38:36 PM »
In 1927, the Canadian branch of the British aircraft company Vickers began work on the project of a single-seat flying boat Vista. It was planned that it would enter service with the Royal Canadian Air Force. The project was headed by designer Reginald Mitchell, the future creator of the Supermarine Spitfire fighter. October 27, 1927 - the first flight of the Canadian Vickers Vista flying boat.

It was a flying high-wing boat with a pusher propeller and a duralumin hull. The wings were made of wood and covered with canvas. The Armstrong-Siddeley Genet engine (75 hp) was installed, the maximum speed was 145 km/h.

Vista was the first monoplane developed by Canadian Vickers. During the tests, its flight characteristics were not impressed, and the aircraft was not launched into mass production. The only Canadian Vickers Vista built was used to investigate the corrosion of its duralumin hull.

Combat Warplanes / Dornier Do Y
« on: October 17, 2021, 04:27:44 PM »
In 1930, Dornier Flugzeugwerke and designer Claude Dornier began work on a new aircraft. It was conceived as a further development of the Do P bomber . Due to the limitations of the Versailles Peace Treaty, the aircraft was presented as a transport. But the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which was looking for bombers for its Air Force, became interested in the project. So the plane got its designation - Do Y (Y ? Yougoslavie). October 17 , 1931 - the first flight of the Dornier Do Y bomber .

It was an incongruous all-metal high-wing with a non-retractable landing gear. 2 = Gnome-Rh?ne 9Kers engines (600 hp) were installed in the wing nacelles, another one was placed on top of the fuselage. The maximum speed is 300 km/h, the flight range is 1500 km. Armament ? 5 ? 7.7 mm machine guns + 1.2 tons of bombs.

In total , 4 Do Y bombers were built . They were in service with the Royal Yugoslav Air Force until 1939. Later they were converted into transport aircraft.

Combat Warplanes / ?sterreichische Aviatik D.I
« on: October 16, 2021, 06:36:32 PM »
In the summer of 1916, the German engineer Julius von Berg became the chief designer of ?sterreichisch-Ungarische Flugzeugfabrik Aviatik. One of his first projects was a single-seat fighter, designated D.I. Work on it began in August 1916 and was completed in 2 months. October 16, 1916 - the first flight of the fighter ?sterreichische Aviatik D.I (aka Berg D.I).

D.I was a typical biplane for those years with a non-retractable landing gear. The Austro-Daimler 6 engine (197 hp) was installed on the 38 series aircraft, the maximum speed was 185 km / h, there was enough fuel for 2.5 hours of flight. The armament consisted of 2 ? 8 mm Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 machine guns.

Although the first flight of the D.I ended in an accident, the aircraft was brought to mass production. He became the first serial Austro-Hungarian fighter of his own design. In total, over 700 fighters were produced, which were actively used until the very end of the First World War.

Combat Warplanes / Nakajima Ki-27
« on: October 15, 2021, 06:56:43 PM »
In 1935, the Japanese Army Air Force announced a competition to develop a new fighter. It was supposed to replace the outdated Kawasaki Ki-10 biplane. Among the three companies that submitted their projects for the competition was Nakajima with its Ki-27 fighter. October 15, 1936 - the first flight of the Nakajima Ki-27 fighter.
It was a single-seat all-metal low-wing with a non-retractable landing gear. The Nakajima Kotobuki engine (650 hp) allowed speeds up to 444 km/h. The combat radius is 627 km . Armament ? 2 ? 7.7 mm Type 89 machine gun on early models and 12.7 mm Ho machine gun-103 + 7,7- mm machine gun on the late. It could also carry 4 ? 25 kg bombs.

The tests showed that the Ki-27 was inferior to the fighters of other companies in speed, but noticeably superior in maneuverability. In 1937, it was adopted under the designation Type 97. 3368 Ki-27 fighters were produced. Except #Japan, they were in service with the Air Forces of Manchukuo, Thailand, China and Indonesia.

Miscellaneous Subjects / Rohr 2-175
« on: October 14, 2021, 11:28:21 AM »
Burt Raynes, president of the aerospace company Rohr Industries, decided to enter the light aviation market in 1974. The famous designer Walter E. Mooney was invited to develop the first aircraft. The project received the designation 71X, but was later renamed 2-175. October 14, 1974 - the first flight of the Rohr 2-175 light aircraft.

Mooney designed a low-wing aircraft with a triangular wing and a non-retractable landing gear. The aircraft was made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic. The Lycoming engine (150 hp) rotated the pusher screw in the annular fairing. The name 2-175 meant that the plane had 2 seats for the pilot and passenger and its speed was 175 mph (281.63 km/h)

Rohr 2-175 performed well during test flights. But Roper Industries started having financial problems and the project had to be curtailed. We managed to build only 2 flying prototypes and 1 aircraft for ground testing. They (as well as all project documentation) were disposed of.

Miscellaneous Subjects / Junkers Ju 52/1m
« on: October 13, 2021, 04:37:02 PM »
Junkers Luftverkehr Persian airline, which was part of Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke, in 1929 proposed to develop a new transport aircraft. The main requirements are the transportation of 2 tons of cargo at a distance of 800 km. The work on the Ju 52/1m project was started by a team of engineers led by Ernst Zindel. October 13, 1930 - the first flight of the Junkers Ju 52/1m transport aircraft.

It was an all-metal low-wing with a non-retractable landing gear (wheeled, ski and float) and a typical Junkers corrugated duralumin skin. It was equipped with a BMW VII engine (504 hp) Cruising speed - 165 km / h, flight range - 1500 km. Took on board 15 passengers or 2170 kg of cargo.

The Ju 52/1m was not particularly successful ? only 7 aircraft were built. The reason is banal ? one engine was not enough both in power and in terms of safety. Therefore, Zindel converted the Ju 52/1m into a three-engine aircraft. This is how the famous and much more successful Ju 52/3m appeared.

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